FÍSICA IV was born as a continuation of my previous project, El espacio privilegiado (Privileged space), in which issues related to the nature of space, understood as a previous and necessary substance of the landscape, were addressed through interventions at open air wild areas. For that project I considered the main cosmogonic theories developed through human history, from Thales of Miletus to Einstein, whose ideas I tried to add to landscape interventions. For FÍSICA IV, I focused on Aristotle's ideas about space that the philosopher wrote in his Book IV of PHYSICS I.

Space metaphysical questioning has accompanied the human being since the dawn of consciousness of it. Because Space, in addition to being an Res Extensa, is also a Res Extranea. First conceptions place Space notion on a religious symbolic level, and later, with the polis, evaluate it from a philosophical point of view. Now, and since Copernicus century, Space has been questioned from a scientific point of view. But in all these ways of approaching the question, a common idea always underlies: the cosmogonic character of its answer.

Even in our current scientific investigation of Space, an annoying metaphysical substratum appears for scientists that they are not able to explain with their language. This speculative beginning is located in the 10-43 seconds after Big-Bang. Further behind the so-called Planck Time, scientific numbers cannot be applied. Is in this tiny space of time where all cosmogonies inhabit. From the Sumerian theory to the university one.

Although the Aristotelian theory about space is largely outdated, and some of its statements may be seen a superstition, it is the theory that remained valid for the longest time. The importance of Aristotle's theory lies in the fact that it will provide the conceptual framework for Ptolemy's geocentrism, whose paradigm remained current for 14 centuries, until Copernicus proposed the Sun as the center of his system.

Aristotle thought that the Universe was a living organism, finite and hierarchically ordered. He did not understand space as a mere dimensional, geometric substance, but “a datum of experience, something that we perceive through our senses –writes Professor Rioja Nieto–, and what they make us know is real. In conclusion, the starting point is an empiricist decision”.

About what Space is for Aristotle, we should understand that he does not conceive the existence of vacuum, so it is Matter what determines the existence of Space. That is why the Stagirite "never speaks of space, but of 'place' as the definition of a body in terms of the limit between the body itself and that thing which contains it”. The author himself already warns us in his text about the intricacy of the subject: “I must make clear about its intractability and the problems that surround it”.

In other words, Peña Nieto continues,"place is defined as the internal surface of the container that is in contact with the external surface of the content, which it surrounds and borders, both having to be exactly the same in terms of size”.

“Place”, which others have wanted to translate as space, would be a kind of membrane that runs through the shape of the bodies it contains. Among the arguments that lead the philosopher to this conclusion is that space, although without matter, has the same dimensions as matter.

This Aristotelian protective film that is space is what the different volumes with which the interventions have been carried out represent. These are volumetric pieces made with construction fence fabric that serve to delimit space, to create it. The black fabric is the limit between the body itself and that one which contains it.

The interventions and their photos were made in the inhabited perimeter areas of Madrid, a bordering space where industrial estates coexist with vacant lots and highways. Although these spaces already have an extensive symbolic substratum for all of us, they are spaces that are dispossessed of a clear identity, somehow their “what for” concept is unknown. They are thus

more permeable to interpretation spaces and in some way they suggest new readings. This is not only due to the absence of its functionality, but to the very morphology of the space, that provides enough formal severity to the artist interventions.

This elementary austerity produces that many of the images in the exhibition adopt certain metaphysical meanings, which are intended to fit in with the theme of the project.

In this way, it must be noted that the choice for black and white is not only due to the interest in influencing the theoretical nature of the matter, since that is how the artist believes that B/W affects, but also because in winter, the open space acquires gray tones that suits perfectly to this photograph concept.

These installed volumes, which create their space through the fabric that delimits them, have later been installed in the gallery space. The aim is that the change of scale intensifies the presence of these spatial volumes, and that the aesthetic walk of the visitant is interfered with by their materiality, by their limits.

Eduardo Lamparero. Enero 2022.